Category Archives: books
Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back: The Original Topps Trading Card Series, Volume Two introduction and commentary by Gary Gerani (2016)
Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back: The Original Topps Trading Card Series, Volume Two
introduction and commentary by Gary Gerani
Abrams ComicArts, 2016
Many fans of the greatest space opera contend that the best film of the series is Episode V, better known as The Empire Strikes Back. It is fitting, then, that the book chronicling Topps trading cards for the film exceeds the initial volume in quality. The creative driving force behind the design and writing of the cards, Gary Gerani, tells the process of meeting with LucasFilm executives to read the script and select images for the cards. The movie’s big reveal was kept secret from Topps at the time; Gerani recalls the first time he learned of Darth Vader’s familial relationship with Luke Skywalker was when he saw the film in Manhattan.
Initially, Gernai and Topps were told they could not use Yoda in their set, as he was a “mysterious creative element” that George Lucas and Irvin Kershner wanted to keep him a surprise for the public. Lucas eventually relented, and Yoda is prominently displayed on several cards in the series. Gerani wrote the copy for many of the cards, making up dialogue that fit with several of the characters’ personalities.
In addition to the reproductions of all three series of cards, front and back, the book also features images of sell sheets, packaging, stickers, and the 30-card set of giant photocards. Also, as in the first volume, actual promotional trading cards are also including with the hard copy purchase. In addition to that, Topps has included a code for a free pack of digital trading cards on their Star Wars Card Trader app.
Game 7, 1986: Failure and Triumph in the Biggest Game of My Life by Ron Darling with Daniel Paisner (2016)
Game 7, 1986: Failure and Triumph in the Biggest Game of My Life
by Ron Darling with Daniel Paisner
St. Martin’s Press, 2016
Imagine yourself as the starting pitcher in Game 7 of the World Series, and your team wins…what an absolute thrill that must be, right? Ron Darling experienced it in 1986, the Mets and Red Sox tied up 3-3 in the Series, and at the end of the night as he celebrated the victory with his teammates, one thought cast a shadow over the pandemonium: “Wishing like crazy I could forget how it started.”
Darling had long dreamed of this day, though in his childhood fantasies he was on the mound for Boston, not New York. His outing did not turn out the way he had pictured it; in less than four innings, he gave up six hits and three earned runs. He was pulled for Sid Fernandez, who gave way to winning pitcher Roger McDowell and closer Jesse Orosco. The team won, but Darling didn’t. Most players don’t write books about their biggest disappointments, but Darling did.
Game 7, 1986: Failure and Triumph in the Biggest Game of My Life recounts Darling’s preparation for the game, his pre-game ritual which had to be repeated on Monday because of the Sunday night weather cancellation, a vague death threat, notes about the batters he faced in those three and two-thirds innings, and the opposing pitcher Bruce Hurst. Darling touches very briefly on the recklessness of the team off the field, including the night in Houston he was arrested for punching an off-duty police officer outside a bar. But those are passing references; the focus of this book is on Game 7.
While the team won, Darling writes, “I’ve had thirty years to deal with the disappointment of my Game 7 performance.” Despite the victory, he believed he let the team and the city down because he could not shut down the Red Sox bats in the first few innings. He also reflects on the wasted talent of the team, believing that they should have done more, particularly Darryl Strawberry and Dwight Gooden. Considering their talent, they should have been all-time greats, and Darling writes that “the further away I am from my playing days, the more I resent how they squandered their gifts.”
The 1986 team was a special collection of players, one that will always be remembered both for their dominance and their arrogance. Darling’s recounting of the final game of the World Series is a good reminder that it didn’t always go their way, but in the end, they were able to pull off the championship.
There are certain resource materials that every writer must possess in his arsenal, including a dependable dictionary and thesaurus. Words are the building blocks of language, and a dictionary and thesaurus will assist in putting one’s thoughts together in an understandable manner. Whether one is using those words appropriately, however, is another matter. In his massive Garner’s Modern English Usage: Fourth Edition, linguist Bryan Garner addresses the proper way to put words together.
In addition to more than 6,000 entries on grammar, syntax, punctuation, style, and more, Garner addresses the battle between prescriptive linguists and descriptive linguists. Prescribers are known to suggest how language should be used, while describers simply observe and report on how it is used. Garner falls more into the prescriptive camp, though he concedes there are some battles lost long ago that should not be resurrected. Garner does report on how language is used, utilizing modern tools such as Google’s ngrams to make this one of the most reliable linguistic guides ever, but he does not shy away from denouncing improper usage when needed.
As a resource, Garner’s Modern English Usage: Fourth Edition is a valuable tool. Not as indispensable as a standard dictionary or thesaurus, but it is a fantastic tool that can be used to give one’s writing more accuracy.
The most recent update to OxfordDictionaries.com sees a host of new words added from the worlds of politics, popular culture, and social media. You can see ten highlights from the update below. In each case, clicking on the word will take you through to the word’s new dictionary entry, where you can see full definitions, example sentences, and more.
autocorreck verb (of software) cause (text) to contain mistakes by means of an autocorrect or autocomplete function: “I wrote a great text to her, but ‘love’ was autocorrecked to ‘move’.”
[Blend of autocorrect and wreck]
parrotocracy noun a hypothetical society governed by people selected according to their ability to repeat slogans and soundbites mechanically, or to repeat or steal the policies and ideas of others: “Heaven help us if we end up with a parrotocracy.”
[from parrot and -cracy]
reply-gall noun the perceived impudence of an individual who sends an email response to everyone addressed in the original message: “His reply-gall became infamous after he sent an 1800-word response to a company-wide announcement.”
[from reply + gall after reply-all]
Instayam noun a Thanksgiving photograph shared on social media: “Before we ate, we had to send an Instayam.”
[blend of Instagram and yam]
Leo verb to achieve something after years of trying: “I feel like I’ve Leoed this morning; I finally passed my driving test.”
[from the name of Leonardo DiCaprio, with allusion to his winning the 2016 Academy Award for Best Actor after six unsuccessful nominations.]
fanishment noun the state of being blocked by a celebrity on social media: “Steve’s fanishment was inevitable after he tweeted at the star footballer 1000 times in a single day.”
[blend of fan and banishment]
Obamacar noun (humorous) a hypothetical scheme under which current President of the United States Barack Obama would provide free cars for every citizen in America: “Republican commentators cracked wise about the so-called Obamacar.”
[from Obama + car, after Obamacare]
otter café noun a café or similar establishment where people pay to interact with otters housed on the premises: “Locals are already excited by the prospect of the area’s first otter café.”
LOYO abbreviation laughing on your own (used online in reply to a joke that others have not found amusing): “A better joke next time, please. LOYO.”
social fleedia noun a situation in which one or more social media users choose to close their accounts: “Commentators are seeing a huge rise in millennials encouraging social fleedia.”
“Social media continues to be a vital and constantly evolving catalyst for linguistic innovation,” says Richard Snary, a lexicographer at Oxford Dictionaries. “We’re recognizing this with words which specifically reference these sites, such as Instayam, fanishment, and social fleedia, but Twitter also accounts for much of our corpus data for Obamacar, LOYO, and the verb to Leo. In two of these examples, we’re seeing how the creation and sharing of memes relating to a specific public figure can quickly gain traction and help a coinage enter the language – and our language monitoring programme is uniquely placed to observe and record these changes.”
[JT sez: I think they have gone too far this time. When will the idiocy stop?]
Legends of Giants Baseball by Mike Shannon, illustrated by Chris Felix, Scott Hannig, and Donnie Pollard (2016)
Legends of Giants Baseball
by Mike Shannon
illustrated by Chris Felix, Scott Hannig, and Donnie Pollard
Black Squirrel Books (an imprint of the Kent State University Press), 2016
Name the top five Giants players—New York or San Francisco—in baseball history. Most can easily rattle off a handful of names: Christy Mathewson, Mel Ott, Willie McCovey, Juan Marichal, and of course Willie Mays. And while these Hall of Famers are profiled in Mike Shannon’s new book, Legends of Giants Baseball, the author is not content to stop there. Forty players are presented, ten each from 1883-1925, 1926-1950, 1951-1975, and 1976-2015. Baseball fans can dig deep with Tim Keefe, Sal Maglie, Jim Davenport, and even recent players such as Tim Lincecum and Madison Bumgarner.
Of course, Barry Bonds is included as well, but Shannon does not gloss over the slugger’s sins. He writes, “It is truly a shame that his is not a simple story of baseball greatness but a cautionary tale of jealousy, arrogance, unbridled ambition, and dishonesty.” All can certainly agree that the numbers are astounding, but the path to his final career totals was fraught with controversy.
As with Shannon’s Cincinnati Reds Legends from last year, Legends of Giants Baseball is infinitely enhanced by the artistic talents of Chris Felix, Scott Hannig, and Donnie Pollard. My favorite portraits are Hannig’s depictions of Ott and Jack Clark, each done in a different style.
The names on any list of legends will change depending on the writer and the time the list was created, but the artwork on Legends of Giants Baseball makes this a must-have not only for Giants fans, but for all baseball fans.
Nearly everyone recognizes how important the Woodstock festival is in the fabric of American rock music; few, however, understand the significance of the actual town Woodstock. Of course, the festival was not held in the town, but the creative output from the town is undeniable when viewed through the lens of history. The subtitle of Barney Hoskyns’ latest book, Small Town Talk, lists the major players that decided to “get it together in the county”: Bob Dylan, the Band, Van Morrison, Janis Joplin, and Jimi Hendrix. But there were others, such as Paul Butterfield and Todd Rundgren.
Hoskyns collects memories and anecdotes from the atmosphere of the 1960s, based on numerous first-hand interviews, telling tales of the legends of folk rock. So much of the art that was imagined there was pure and honest, and has impacted and continues to impact the world for generations since. Fans of the sixties music scene, especially the brilliance of Dylan, will enjoy this history of the time.
Leonard: My Fifty-Year Friendship with a Remarkable Man
by William Shatner with David Fisher
Thomas Dunne Books, 2016
The entertainment industry lost an icon in 2015 when Leonard Nimoy passed away, but his impact and work will be forever remembered. His close friend and co-star on many Star Trek projects, William Shatner, delivers a touching memoir in Leonard: My Fifty-Year Friendship with a Remarkable Man. Shatner shares several stories that will bring a smile to the reader’s face, whether he is a “Trekkie” or not.
While the majority of the book deals with the time Nimoy and Shatner spent together on Star Trek, as well as an examination of the Spock character, the actor was so much more. He was a fighter for the benefits of his fellow actors, standing up to Filmation when they attempted to create a Star Trek cartoon without George Takei and Nichelle Nichols. Filmation relented, because, as Shatner writes, “They company had no choice; without Leonard or me, there was no Star Trek.” Shatner also recalls Nimoy’s time as director of a couple of the Star Trek films and Three Men and a Baby. Mention is made of the Golden Throats recordings, and the emergence of Star Trek conventions is given a fair amount of ink. Shatner also touches on Nimoy’s alcoholism and the negative effects that it had on his life.
Leonard: My Fifty-Year Friendship with a Remarkable Man is a story of true friendship, ups and downs, good and bad. There is nothing scintillating or derogatory, nor does it seem to be a cash-grab designed to capitalize on the late actor’s relatively recent passing. It is an honest, heartfelt remembrance of a man that touched the lives of many through his work in film and television.
The very talented Matt Tavares has written and illustrated several children’s books about baseball players, including Ted Williams, Hank Aaron, and Pedro Martinez. His book about the most famous baseball player of all, Babe Ruth, was originally released in 2013, and is now available in paperback. Becoming Babe Ruth tells of the ballplayer’s roots at Saint Mary’s Industrial School for Boys in Baltimore and his ascension to greatness in Boston and New York.
More than that though, Becoming Babe Ruth shows the Sultan of Swat’s generosity and heart toward those who helped him along the way. Tavares does a wonderful job of painting a picture—both figuratively and literally—of this positive aspect of Ruth’s personality. As in his other baseball books, Tavares’ artwork is second-to-none.
For those who have young children, Tavares’ books are a wonderful introduction to both the sport and the personalities that play it. Becoming Babe Ruth is recommended for readers 5-8 years old.
(April 28, 1926 – February 19, 2016)
The author of one of the classics of American literature, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee passed away today at the age of 89. A second novel, Go Set a Watchman, was published in 2015, fifty-five years after her first novel.
Team Chemistry: The History of Drugs and Alcohol in Major League Baseball by Nathan Michael Corzine (2016)
Team Chemistry: The History of Drugs and Alcohol in Major League Baseball
by Nathan Michael Corzine
University of Illinois Press, 2016
Steroids and performance enhancing drugs have cast a black cloud over baseball for the past couple of decades, but the sport’s chemical controversy has much deeper roots. Author Nathan Michael Corzine travels all the way back to the nineteenth century to show how interconnected baseball was with tobacco and still is with alcohol. He journeys through the twentieth century with tranquilizers, amphetamines, cocaine, and finally the most recent steroid scandal. The handling and mishandling of these abuses is on trial, showing how baseball’s administration failed time and again to confront the illicit activities of the clubhouses and weight rooms.
“Nothing threatens the sacred covenant between baseball past and present in the way that drugs, especially performance-enhancing drugs, do,” Corzine writes. “(PED users’) transgressions struck at the very soul of the ‘Last Pure Place’; they waged war on the numbers, the holy scriptures of the church of baseball, the sacred links tying each passing baseball generation to the next.” This is really what is at stake for baseball purists: those who played in the so-called good old days where not indulging in substances that would enhance their performance on the field. More often than not, those substances—tobacco, alcohol, and cocaine—would hinder their abilities.
There may be some debate over the effect of amphetamines, but there is little doubt that the effect is negligent when compared to the modern performance enhancers. But, as Corzine opines, “It was really just a small step, a logical step, from greenies and tranquilizers to Winstrol and HGH.” No matter how small or logical the step, it was wrong. Baseball failed America, and fans buried their heads in the sand for too long. The steroid problem is far from over, despite what Bud Selig and Rob Manfred may claim.
Corzine’s book is a good, balanced look at the history of chemical abuses in the sport, examining the problems that bedeviled Mickey Mantle, Don Newcombe, Bill Tuttle, Tony Gwynn, Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, and other figurative and literal giants of the game.
There is no shortage of publications covering the British television show Doctor Who. Justin Richards, the creatie consultant to BBC Books’ range of Doctor Who titles, authored the 2014 release, Doctor Who: The Secret Lives of Monsters, examining some of the most popular baddies in the fictional universe.
While the layout leaves something to be desired, Richards’ treatment of the subject matter is top-notch, first looking at each creature as if they were real beings. Richards goes on to take a behind-the-scenes look at them, including the inspiration for them and showing photographs of actors behind the masks and props makers. The author also takes the reader on a trip through time and space by looking how each incarnation of the Doctor dealt with the monsters.
A collection of sixteen removable color prints of original artwork by concept artist Peter McKinstry is included inside an envelope in the back of the book, making this volume all the more enjoyable. Doctor Who fans will no doubt find The Secret Lives of Monsters informative and educational, especially when they come face-to-face with some of the most terrifying aliens in the universe.
He was one of the most respected presidents that has served this country, and countless books have been released to celebrate his eight years as the leader of the free world. This recent release from Thunder Bay Press, written by Randy Roberts and David Welky, is a brief but respectful overview of President Reagan’s life, including his career in film, governorship of California, and the presidency.
What sets this book apart from others, however, are the pieces of removable memorabilia included. Reprints of magazine covers, brochures, a ticket to the 1981 inauguration, and a “Reagan-Bush ‘84” bumper sticker are among the eleven pieces of removable memorabilia. Fans of the late President will cherish these mementos along with the commentary and photographs found throughout the volume.
NFL Confidential: True Confessions from the Gutter of Football
by Johnny Anonymous
Dey Street Books, 2016
Purportedly written by an offensive lineman who was thrust into the starting lineup, only to find his job yanked away from him when a veteran returned from injury, NFL Confidential is like peeking into a pro locker room through the eyes of a bitter, confused, arrogant backup player. “Johnny Anonymous” claims to hate the NFL and all the politics of the game, but when he finds himself taking snaps as a starter, he plays along just fine. He rediscovers his love for football, but continues to spew hatred toward the people that allow him to play.
The author mocks his teammates and his coaches, whines about the physical aspects of training camp and practice, and fantasizes about being cut so he can find something else to do with his life. This is not so much an exposé of the league as it the infantile rantings of an ungrateful athlete. He drops the “f-bomb” far too often to be taken seriously, and comes off as a fool who simply doesn’t realize how good he’s got it.
The copyright page states that the “book is not authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved in any manner by the National Football League.” Certainly there are some harsh things said about the NFL within the pages, but it’s nothing I haven’t heard before. This is just the first time it has come from a player and not a journalist or superfan.
And who exactly is the author, “Johnny Anonymous”? The prevailing theory online seems to be David Molk, offensive lineman for the Philadelphia Eagles. Not all of the characteristics fit, but it must be remembered that “names, physical characteristics and other identifying details have been changed, and in some cases composite characters created, to protect the privacy and anonymity of the individuals involved.” It will certainly be interesting to see if Molk has a job next season, especially if it is revealed that he is the actual author.
There are a few parts of NFL Confidential that are somewhat interesting, but overall it felt like a chore to read and I felt wholly apathetic toward this poor rich man’s plight. If we could all be so unfortunate to make hundreds of thousands of dollars to do, as he proudly admits while begging for our sympathy, nothing.
Curious Goods: Behind the Scenes of Friday the 13th: The Series
by Alyse Wax
BearManor Media, 2016
Throughout the years, horror anthology programs have appeared on television. From The Twilight Zone to Chiller to Tales from the Crypt, there have been ample opportunities for fans of the macabre to enjoy the gory genre on the small screen. In the late 1980s, Paramount utilized the popularity of the Friday the 13th film series, using the name for a syndicated television show. Jason Voorhees was not a part of this show; cursed antiques were the central objects in this series. I remember staying up late to watch Friday the 13th: The Series, and loved every second of it. It has been years since I have seen the show, but still have vivid memories.
Alyse Wax’s new book, Curious Goods: Behind the Scenes of Friday the 13th the Series is a fantastic journey back to the antique shop with Micki and Ryan and their adventures of tracking down cursed objects. Wax gives an episode-by-episode breakdown for the entire three-season run of the show, along with quotes from the main actors, producers, writers, and directors. She also delves into John LeMay’s decision to leave the show after two seasons, the Don Wildmon controversy, and includes an interview with series creator and executive producer Frank Mancuso, Jr.
After reading this episode guide, I will definitely be revisiting Friday the 13th: The Series soon to see what I missed all those years ago while watching on my little grainy black-and-white television in my bedroom, long after I should have been asleep.
Beyond Bartman, Curses, & Goats: 108 Reasons It’s Been 108 Years
By Chris Neitzel
Windy City Publishers, 2015
It is difficult to imagine being a Cubs fan, disappointed year in and year out despite an immense amount of talent. I followed the Cubs briefly in the late 1980s and early 1990s thanks to daily coverage on WGN, and have visited Wrigley Field three times (so far). In 1989, I fell in love with the ballpark, and claimed the Cubs as my favorite team. It didn’t last long, as the Reds roared through the 1990 season and won the World Series. It was difficult to be in Cincinnati and not root for the Reds that year. Yet, I still have a special place in my heart for the lovable losers from Chicago.
Lifelong Cubs fan Chris Neitzel has released a new edition of Beyond Bartman, Curses & Goats to include the 2015 season and the heartbreaking National League Championship Series against the Mets. In this well-documented book, readers will learn about bad trades, daft drafts, and overwhelming competition. My personal favorite is “Reason 105: Hall of Fame Players, Hall of Fame Results…Not So Much,” and the curious coincidence of having so many great players with so little postseason success. From Ernie Banks and Billy Williams to Andre Dawson and Ryne Sandberg, the Cubs have boasted some of the greatest players in history, but do not have any recent World Series rings to show for it.
Neitzel hopes that the Cubs soon break their losing streak so that “further editions of this book will no longer be needed.” In the meantime, though, Cubs fans will get a kick out of his self-deprecating humor and solid research on the team everyone loves despite the losses.
I became a Chicago Cubs fan in 1989 when my dad took me to Wrigley Field. Rick Sutcliffe pitched that day against the Montreal Expos; Jerome Walton, Andre Dawson, Ryne Sandberg, Mark Grace all played. And my favorite baseball player at the time, Shawon Dunston, was the shortstop. The vibe of the ballpark, sitting in the bleachers, just the whole experience enthralled me. I rooted for the Cubs through the end of high school, but the strike of 1994 soured me on baseball in general. I have since come back to love the game for what it is, and root for the Cubs when they make the playoffs. The Reds are my #1 team, but the Cubs are a pretty close second.
The Cubs will always be one of the more popular teams in baseball, and as such, there are a lot of choices when it comes to Christmas gifts. Here are a few suggestions for the Cubs fan in your life.
- Beyond Bartman, Curses, & Goats: 108 Reasons It’s Been 108 Years by Chris Neitzel
- Wrigley Field: The Long Life and Contentious Times of the Friendly Confines by Stuart Shea
- The Cubs Fan’s Guide to Happiness by George Ellis
- Wrigley Field: An Oral and Narrative History of the Home of the Chicago Cubs by Ira Berkow
- Essential Games of the Chicago Cubs DVD set
Most people don’t think of horror during the Christmas season, but for the true horror nut the genre is a year-round obsession. If you have someone on your to-buy-for list that thinks Halloween should be a month-long holiday rather than one day, here are some suggestions.
- The Stephen King Compainion by George Beahm
- Stephen King novels (classics like The Shining, It, Pet Sematary; newer titles such as Revival, 11/22/63)
- In the Shadow of Edgar Allan Poe: Classic Tales of Terror, 1816-1914
- Essential Horror Movies by Michael Mallory
- Pumpkin Cinema by Nathaniel Tolle
- Vuckovic’s Horror Miscellany by Jovanka Vuckovic
Superman made his debut in Action Comics in the 1930s, but superheroes existed long before that. Author Chris Gavaler argues that superhero mythology has existed as long as the universe, which he asserts is billions of years old. Gavaler starts with the Big Bang Theory, then examines different historical figures as well as fictional characters to establish his premise. If you can overlook Gavaler’s belief in the big bang and an old earth, this is an interesting examination of the basis of the modern superhero.
The book is a somewhat scholarly read, not for the easily bored or distracted. Some of Gavaler’s references and comparisons can be confusing, and the reader may have to reread several paragraphs to grasp exactly what is being said at times. I would not recommend it to younger comic book fans, but perhaps college age readers with a recent familiarity of world history would enjoy it.
A Just and Generous Nation: Abraham Lincoln and the Fight for American Opportunity by Harold Holzer and Norton Garfinkle (2015)
A Just and Generous Nation: Abraham Lincoln
and the Fight for American Opportunity
by Harold Holzer and Norton Garfinkle
Basic Books, 2015
There are few Americans that would argue against Abraham Lincoln’s place among the greatest Presidents in United States history. His brave yet humble leadership stabilized the union in the midst of its most dangerous trial, the Civil War. The result of that conflict, the freeing of the slaves, has been heralded as his crowning achievement. Yet there are some who claim the emancipation of the slaves was of secondary importance of the conflict.
Authors Harold Holzer and Norton Garfinkle make the claim in A Just and Generous Nation that Lincoln’s impetus for war was economic rather than moral. There is no doubt that economics concerns were important to the sixteenth president, as they have been important to every other man who has held the office. The authors write, “More than any other president, Lincoln is the father of the American Dream that all Americans should have the opportunity through hard work to build a comfortable middle-class life.” That statement is not controversial, and even their assertion that economics played a larger role in the Civil War than slavery is not without merit, but the conclusions drawn from those assertions smack of partisanship.
The first half of the book is a good overview of Lincoln’s ascendancy to the highest office in the land, and speaks to his own “hard work.” He had nothing handed to him; he was responsible for doing what was needed to achieve success in his own life. The second half of the book, however, begins to assign blame for later economic hardships to partisan politics and particularly Republican leaders (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, Reagan, and the younger Bush), set against the “American Dream of successful middle-class society” presidents (Wilson, both Roosevelts, Johnson, Clinton, and Obama). The authors then turn around and state all too truthfully, “Politicians of both parties typically spend more time raising money for their political campaigns than working on legislation or governing.”
Certainly Lincoln was a shrewd politician that pushed for legislation that would eventually eradicate slavery, with or without the Civil War. I am not sure that I would assign the immorality of slavery to a lower rung of importance as the authors did, but they do make a compelling case.
A Just and Generous Nation starts strong and is interesting in its theory of Lincoln’s economic interests. History buffs may enjoy the read, though it is doubtful to shed much new light or change the minds of those who have grown to admire and emulate the Great Emancipator.